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1. Introduction to Arthrology

2. Objective of The Lecture To know about definition of Arthrology. To know about classification of joints . To master the basic structure and movement of joints.

3. Arthrology Definition: . Greek, (arthro= joint), (logos= science). Arthrology is the scientific study of joints , and articulations. Site where rigid elements of the skeleton meet are called articulations.

4. Joints .Joints are places of union between two or more skeletal elements

5. Classification of Joints Classification based on function Classification based on structure

6. Classification Based on Structure Based on the material that binds the bones together, and on the presence or absence of joint cavity. 1. Fibrous joints are fixed , and immovable 2. Cartilagenous joints are slightly moveable, semimovable 3. Synovial joints are movable.

7. Fibrous Joints . Bones connected by fibrous tissue . No joint cavity a) Sutures b) Syndesmoses c) Gomphoses

8. Sutures .Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue uniting bones of the skull . Irregular/interlocking edges give added strength & prevent fracture . Synarthrosis because immovable . Synostosis = suture that has fused completely & been replaced by bone

9. Syndesmoses . Greater distance between articulating bones & more fibrous C.T. than sutures . Arrangements of C.T. - bundles = ligament - sheets = inteross. memb. Amphiarthrosis: limited movement . Examples - Anterior tibiofibular joint -Interosseous membranes in forearm and leg

10. Gomphoses . Dentoalveolar joints: cone-shaped pegs in bony socket . Synarthrosis . Only example = teeth in alveolar processes of maxillae and mandible

11. Cartilaginous joints - The bones are united by cartilage - There is no joint cavity A. Synchondrosis( hyaline cartilage unites the bones) B. Symphyses( fibrocartilage unites the bones)

12. Synchondrosis . Connecting material = hyaline cartilage . Synarthrosis . Examples: - Epiphyseal plates - Articulation of first rib w/ manubrium of sternum - Become synostoses when bone replaces cartilage

13. Symphysis . Ends of articulating bones covered w/ hyaline cartilage . Thin disc of fibrocartilaginous connects bones . All occur in midline of body . Amphiarthrosis . Examples: - Intervertebral disc - Pubic symphysis

14. Synovial Joints . Most movable joints in the body . There is a joint cavity.( Synovial cavity, synovial fluid) . Articular cartilage( covers the ends of the opposing bones) . Articular capsule( it enclses the joint cavity.2 layered) . Reinforcing ligaments . Bursae . Movement vs stability

15. Classification Based on Function . Synarthroses-immovable joints (sutures) . Amphiarthroses- slightly movable joints( fibrous connection)( intervetebral discs) . Diarthroses-freely movable joints( synovial) . Synarthroses and amphiarthroses are largely restricted to the axial skeleton . Diarthroses predominate in the limbs.

16. Synarthrosis - Also called a synostosis or syndesmosis - is a bone to bone union - begins as a joint where there is a fibrous membrane between the two bones. - They are sometime Fibrous Joints or Ligamentous - Non moveable - Fontanelles are examples

17. Amphiarthrosis (cartilagenous joints) - Moveable and immoveable - Cartilage between two bones - These joints allow some movement while still providing protection.

18. Diarthrosis (Synovial Joints) . Allow for free movement . Have 3 characteristics: 1) Synovial membrane: A serous membrane that produces synovial fluid which reduces friction and absorbs shock. 2) Articular cartilage 3) Capsule: Dense connective tissue covering the joint

19. Summary of Joint Classification Structural Class Characteristics Types Mobility Fibrous Bones united by collagen fibers 1. Suture 2.Syndesmosis 3.gomphosis 1. Immobile (synarthrosis) 2.Slightly moveable (amphiarthrosis) 3.Immobile Cartilaginous Bone ends united by cartilage 1.Synchondrosis (hyaline) 2.Symphysis (fibrocartliage) 1.Immobile 2. Slightly moveable Synovial Bone ends covered with articular cartilage and enclosed within a capsule lined with a synovial membrane 1. Plane 2.Hinge 3.Pivot 4.Condyloid 5.Saddle 6. Ball and socket Freely moveable (diarthrosis) which depends on joint design

20. Types of Joints (Articulations) 1. Ball and Socket Joint - Allow for the most freedom of movement - Triaxial movement - flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumflexion, and rotation

21. Types of Joints (Articulations) 2. Hinge joint - Uniaxial - allows movement in only one direction. Back and forth - Allows only flexion and extension in one plane (sagittal) - Many times the articular surfaces will have a distinct shape (ie: spool shaped trochlear surface of the humerus)

22. Types of Joints (Articulations) 3. Pivot joint - Allows rotation (uniaxial) - Rounded, pointed, or conical surface on one bone that fits into a ring of bone on another. 4. Saddle joint - Biaxial - Allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. - Surfaces are inverted relative to each other.

23. Types of Joints (Articulations) 5. Condyloid joint - Biaxial - One bone is concave (hollowed out depression) and the other is convex (rounded or elliptical). - Allows flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. - No rotation 24. Types of Joints (Articulations) 6. Sliding or gliding joint - Biaxial - Side to side, back and forth - Two flat surfaces that slide over each other - No angular motion

25. Types of Joints (Articulations) Joint Type Example Gliding Intercarpal joints of foot Condyloid Knee Hinge Elbow Saddle Thumb Pivot Back of the neck(atlas & axis) Ball and Socket Hip

26. Basic Structure & General Anatomy . Articular capsule encloses joint cavity - continuous with periosteum - lined by synovial membrane . Synovial fluid = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages . Articular cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces . Articular discs and menisci - jaw, wrist, sternoclavicular and knee joints - absorbs shock, guides bone movements and distributes forces . Tendon attaches muscle to bone . Ligament attaches bone to bone

27. Tendon Sheaths and Bursae . Bursa = saclike extension of joint capsule - between nearby structures so slide more easily past each other . Tendon sheaths = cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and wrapped around a tendon 28. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths



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Address: 173-B Tagore Town, Allahabad
Contact No: 0532-2468222, 7080632218